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2019-07-08 | 公共電視

HPA Finds Myopia Rates Up Among Taiwan Children|國健署調查:小一學童近視盛行率達1/5

According to the latest study conducted by the Health Promotion Administration, myopia rate for kids at the senior year of kindergarten in Taiwan is about 9 percent, but it increased sharply to 19.8 percent in the first year of primary school, meaning that two out of every ten students are myopic. The new results also show that 9 out of 10 high school seniors is nearsighted.

This is a Li, an eighth grader who has been suffering from myopia since he was eight. It was first a mild myopia of 100 degrees, but after spending at least 1.5 hours on his phone, his myopia worsened to 700 degrees by the time he began the seventh grade. He began to experience blurred vision. The doctors found out that his severe myopia has triggered retinal detachment. The doctor had to resort to an emergency surgery to prevent the student's vision from worsening.

Young children don't have much in the way of entertainment. They often just chat with their friends, which means spending time on consumer electronics. This has caused his myopia to worsen by 100 degrees per year.

Myopia has become an increasing severe epidemic among students. According to the latest survey results from the Health Promotion Administration, about 9 percent of the senior in kindergartens suffer from myopia; the figures doubles by the time that students begin their first year in elementary school, reaching 19.8 percent. This means two out of every ten students suffer from myopia. Among twelfth graders, as many as nine students out of ten suffer from myopia. Doctors have warned that myopia higher than 500 degrees could lead to glaucoma, retinal detachment and macular degeneration, and there is also a 10 percent chance that it could lead to total vision loss. Another recent study has shown that, if one increases his or her time spent on outdoors activity by one hour each week, it'll decrease the risk of myopia by 2 percent.

Sunlight has a more even spectrum, which allows the retinas to generate dopamine and hold the eyeball together and reduce the chance of one's myopia worsening.

Doctors have said that summers are considered a peak season for the risk of getting myopia. They have advised parents to bring their children to the outdoors, which reduce their children's chance of fixing their eyes on something close and allows more interaction between parents and children. The doctors also said that those who have to use mobile phones should take a 10-minute break every half an hour, and children under the age of 2 should avoid staring at screens altogether to reduce the risk of myopia.

國中二年級的李同學,從小學二年級就開始近視,當時只有一百多度,後來升國一,每天滑手機至少1.5小時,近視度數飆升到700多度,上個月底,他發現視力變模糊,就醫才發現,原來是高度近視引發「視網膜剝離」,緊急開刀、才避免視力繼續惡化。

近視學童家長 李先生表示:「小朋友就是這樣,沒有其他的休閒娛樂,或是同學一些的交流,所以他還是以3C的產品為主,造成說他每年會有將近100度左右,視力的加深的部分。」

學童近視情況越來越嚴重,根據國健署最新調查發現,幼兒園大班近視盛行率達9%,到了小一、學童近視率增加兩倍,攀升到19.8%;也就是平均每10個人,就有2人近視;到了高三,更將近每10個人、就有9人是近視;醫師警告,超過500度的高度近視,容易產生青光眼、視網膜剝離及黃斑部病變等,有一成患者會導致失明。不過最新研究發現,若每週增加1小時戶外活動,可有效降低2%近視風險。

高雄長庚眼科主任 吳佩昌表示:「太陽光它的光譜,比較均勻的這種光線呢,就可以去讓眼球的視網膜,產生多巴胺,那它就會把眼球拉住,就比較不會一直往後去延展(近視)。」

醫師提醒,每年寒暑假是學童近視的高峰期,建議家長多帶孩子到戶外活動,不僅可避免長時間近距離用眼,也可增進親子互動;若真要使用手機,建議每半小時休息10分鐘,兩歲以下幼童應避免看螢幕,才可遠離惡視力的威脅。

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