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2019-07-30 | 公共電視

Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Aim to be Launched Next Year|國內研發腸病毒71型疫苗 預計明年上市

Summer and the start of the school year are the peak periods for enterovirus 71 infection among children. Enterovirus 71 can cause serious illness and even death. At present, the mortality rate has been reduced to 2 percent, and a domestically-developed vaccine is currently in the third stage of clinical testing.

The X-ray shows white spots on the lungs. An examination of a computed tomography scan of the brain shows slight swelling. Taiwan experienced its first enterovirus epidemic in 1998, and 78 children infected with enterovirus 71 died. Domestic medical researchers then began studying the virus, and have succeeded in reducing the mortality rate to 2 percent.

The method for treating enterovirus 71 has already been standardized. Every hospital knows what to do, so deaths are not that common anymore, unless a patient receives treatment too late.

Doctors say the enterovirus is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route and contact with the respiratory secretions and droplets of an infected person. The virus will replicate within the intestinal tract and then spread to the entire body. Serious cases may lead to encephalitis or even death. At present, two domestic pharmaceuticals are in the third stage of clinical trials for an enterovirus 71 vaccine. If all proceeds smoothly, a vaccine may hit the market in 2020.

After the National Health Research Institutes completed the first stage of clinical trials, it passed it on to two vaccine manufacturers. They are presently in the third stage of clinical trials. However, there is one issue that needs to be discussed first. If both companies launch vaccines, should all children be inoculated? I think we should have a countermeasure in place first.

Doctors say there are cases of enterovirus infection every year. The first wave normally occurs during the summer, and the second wave in September after schools open. Although enterovirus 71 vaccines may soon be available in Taiwan, there are other types of enterovirus that could become threats. New types may emerge as well. Therefore, Taiwan cannot afford to be careless and must remain vigilant in its infection control work.

從X光片可以清楚看見整個肺部都出現白化,再進一步看腦部的斷層掃描可發現有輕微的腦血腫,1998年,台灣爆發第一波腸病毒的嚴重疫情,有78位孩子因感染腸病毒71型併發重症而死亡,國內的醫學研究團隊,從1998年起研究腸病毒71型、至今已讓死亡率降至2%。

台大醫院小兒部小兒感染科教授 黃立民表示:「目前國內對於腸病毒71的處理,大概都已經標準化了,每個醫院都知道該怎麼辦了,所以不太容易再造成死亡,除非是真的送來太晚。」

醫師表示,腸病毒主要經由糞口途徑或接觸患者口鼻分泌物、飛沫等途徑傳染,接著病毒就會在腸子初步繁殖,再蔓延到全身,嚴重甚至會導致腦炎或死亡,目前國內已有兩家藥廠針對腸病毒71型進行第三期疫苗試驗,若進展順利,最快明年就能問世。

前衛福部長 林奏延表示:「國衛院已經完成,第一期臨床實驗之後,就轉給兩家疫苗公司,目前都在進行第三期臨床試驗,不過要我們國家,可能需要討論一件事,我們的疫苗,如果兩家都出來以後,到底是不是我們的小孩,要全面接種,這個我想,早日應當要有對策出來。」

不過醫師也說,腸病毒每年都有病例,第一波在夏天,第二波在9月開學前後,儘管腸病毒71型疫苗即將在台灣問世,但其他型別的腸病毒仍蠢蠢欲動,甚至還可能出現新的型別,因此國內的感染控制能力仍不能輕忽。

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